2014
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8
8
0
A New Design for Photonic Crystal Ring Resonator Based AddDrop Filter Using Nested Rectangular Rings
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2
In this paper using nested Rectangular resonator we have designed an adddrop filter based on photonic crystal structures suitable for optical communication applications. The drop efficiency and the quality factor of our proposed filter is 100% and 2508. In this filter the quality factor is significantly improved with respect to other published reports. The simulation results are obtained using 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The Photonic Band gap (PBG)is calculated by Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method.
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1
4
Photonic Crystal
Adddrop Filter
FDTD
Nested Rectangular Resonator
[[1] J.D. Joannopoulos, R.D. Meade, J.N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 1995.##[2] M.A.M.A. MansouriBirjandi, M.K. MoravvejFarshi, A. Rostami, Ultrafast low threshold alloptical switch implemented by arrays of ring resonators coupledto a Mach–Zehnder interferometer arm: based on 2D photonic crystals, Appl.Opt. 47 (2008) 5041–5050.##[3] A. Rostami, H. Alipour Banaei, F. Nazari, A. Bahrami, An ultracompact photonic crystal wavelength division demultiplexer using resonance cavities in amodified Ybranch structure, Optik 122 (2011) 1481–1485.##[4] S. Robinson, R. Nakkeeran, Investigation on two dimensional photonic crystal resonant cavity based band pass filter, Optik 123 (2012) 451–457.##[5] H. Guan, P. Han, Y. Li, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, Analysis and optimization of a new photonic crystal filters in near ultraviolet band, Optik 123 (2012)1874–1878.##[6] H.Z. Wang, W.M. Zhou, J.P. Zheng, A 2D rodsinair squarelattice photoniccrystal optical switch, Optik 121 (2010) 1988–1993.##[7] A. Taher Rahmati, N. Granpayeh, Kerr nonlinear switch based on ultracompact photonic crystal directional coupler, Optik 122 (2011) 502–505.##[8] Y. Wan, M. Yun, L. Xia, X. Zhao, 1 × 3 Beam splitter based on selfcollimation effect in twodimensional photonic crystals, Optik 122 (2011) 337–339.##[9] M.R. Rakhshani, M.A. MansouriBirjandi, Heterostructure four channel wavelength demultiplexer using square photonic crystals ring resonators, J.Electromagn. Waves Appl. 26 (2012) 1700–1707.##[10] V. Kumar, B. Suthar, A. Kumar, Kh.S. Singh, A. Bhargava, Design of a wavelengthdivision demultiplexer using Sibased onedimensional photonic crystal witha defect, Optik (2012), 75.##[11] M. Djavid, M.S. Abrishamian, Multichannel drop filters using photonic crystal ring resonators, Optik 123 (2010) 167–170.##]
Introduce an Optimal Pricing Strategy Using the Parameter of "Contingency Analysis" Neplan Software in the Power MarketCase Study (Azerbaijan Electricity Network)
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2
Overall price optimization strategy in the deregulated electricity market is one of the most important challenges for the participants, In this paper, we used Contingency Analysis Module of NEPLAN Software, a strategy of pricing to market participants is depicted.Each of power plants according to their size and share of the Contingency Analysis should be considered in the price of its hour. In the second stage, each of the power plants and crossborder supplier required forecasts on price and load request for determined hours, that can be used Artificial Neural networks. Thus, an efficient integrated model of optimized pricing for participants in the power market is extracted. The result of this study in the Azerbaijan power network for the special day and hour checked and has been provided.
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13
Power Market
Artificial Neural Networks
Contingency Analysis
[[1] Chary, D. M., “Contingency Analysis in Power Systems, Transfer Capability Computation and Enhancement Using Facts Devices in Deregulated Power System.” Ph.D. diss., Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, 2011##[2] Wood, A. J.; Wallenberg, B. F., “Power Generation, Operation and Control”. 2nd ed., New York/USA: John Wiley& Sons, 1996, pp. 410432.##[3] Mohamed, S. E. G.; Mohamed, A. Y., and Abdelrahim, Y. H., “Power System Contingency Analysis to detect Network Weaknesses”, Zaytoonah University International Engineering Conference on Design and Innovation in Infrastructure, Amman, Jordan, pp. I34 Jun., 2012.##[4] Contreras, J.; Espinola, R.; Nogales, F.J.; Conejo, A.J., “ARIMA models to predict nextday electricity prices,” IEEE Trans. on Power Syst., Aug. 2003, Vol. 18, No. 3 , pp.1014 – 1020.##[5] Hippert, H. S.; Pedreira, C. E.; Souza, R. C., “Neural networks for shortterm load forecasting: A review and evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst. Feb.2001, Vol.16, pp.4455.##[6] Ramsay, B.; Wang, A. J., “A neural networks based estimator for electricity spotpricing with particular reference to weekend and public holidays,” 1998, Vol.23, pp.4757.##[7] Szkuta, B. R.; Sanabria, L. A.; Dillon, T. S., “Electricity price shortterm forecasting using artifical neural networks,” IEEE Trans. on Power Syst. , Aug.1999, Vol.14, pp.851857.##[8] Detailed statistic's Iranian electricity industry, especially the transfer of power in 2011, the publisher's TAVANIR Holding Company, Department of Human Resources and Research, published in August 2012.##]
Multi Objective Allocation of Distributed Generations and Capacitor Banks in Simultaneous
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2
This paper has developed a novel multiobjective function for optimal sizing and sitting ofDistributed Generation (DG) units and capacitor banks in simultaneous mode to improve reliabilityand reduce energy losses. The proposed function consists of four objectives: Cost of Energy NotSupplied (CENS), System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI), costs of energy loss andinvestment. A novel structure has been suggested for Differential Evolutionary Algorithm (DEA) tosolve this nonlinear complex problem and its results compared with related values of geneticalgorithm and simple DEA. In addition to the novel objective function, the other contribution of thiswork is proposing a new model for load and energy cost. Three types of DGs, i.e., wind turbine,solar cell and diesel generator have been employed in placement process. To verify thecomprehensiveness of the proposed function, three scenarios have been introduced: Scenario i)First, placement of DGs, then capacitor banks, Scenario ii) First, placement of capacitor banks,and then DGs, and Scenario iii) simultaneous placement of DGs and capacitor banks. Simulationshave been carried out on one part of practical distribution network in Metropolitan Tabriz in NorthWest of Iran. The results of simulations have been discussed and analyzed by using of the five novelindices. The obtained simulation results using proposed function shows that the simultaneousplacement of distributed generations and capacitor banks results in more reduction of the energylosses, and increase improvements of reliability indices as well as voltage profile.
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39
Capacitor banks placement
Distributed generation placement
Differential evolutionary algorithm
Reliability improvement
Practical radial distribution network
[[1] Karimi M., Shayeghi H., Banki T., Farhadi P.,##Ghadimi N. Solving optimal capacitor allocation##problem using DEA in practical distribution networks.##Electrical Review 2012, (7a), pp. 9193.##[2] Mohammadhosein Dideban, Noradin Ghadimi,##Mohammad Bagher Ahmadi and Mohammmad##Karimi, Optimal Location and Sizing of Shunt##Capacitors in Distribution Systems by Considering##Different Load Scenarios. J Electr Eng Technol Vol. 8,##No. 5, 2013, 7(1), pp. 10121020.##[3] Farhadi P., Shayeghi H., Sojoudi T., Karimi M.##Customer reliability improvement and power loss##reduction in radial distribution systems using##distributed generations. Indian Journal of Science and##Technology 2012, 5(3), pp. 23132317##[4] Taher S. A., Hasani M., Karimian A. A novel##method for optimal capacitor placement and sizing in##distribution systems with nonlinear loads and DG using##GA. Communications in Nonlinear Science and##Numerical Simulation 2011, 16, pp. 851862.##[5] Zou K., Agalgaonkar A. P., Muttaqi K. M., Perera##S. Voltage support by distributed generation units and##shunt capacitors in distribution systems. IEEE Power &##Energy Society General Meeting, 2009. PES '09.##[6] Sajjadi S.M., Haghifam M.R, Salehi J.##Simultaneous placement of distributed generation and##capacitors in distribution networks considering voltage##stability index. International Journal of Electrical##Power and Energy Systems 2013, 46, pp. 366375.##[7] Guimara˜es M.A.N., Castro C.A., Romero R.##Distribution systems operation optimization through##reconfiguration and capacitor allocation by a dedicated##genetic algorithm. IET Generation, Transmission and##Distribution 2010, 4(11), pp. 12131222.##[8] Chang Ch.F. Reconfiguration and capacitor##placement for loss reduction of distribution systems by##ant colony search algorithm, IEEE Transactions on##Power Systems 2008, 23(4), pp. 17471755.##[9] Etemadi A.H., FotuhiFiruzabad M. Distribution##system reliability enhancement using optimal capacitor##placement. IET Generation, Transmission and##Distribution 2008, 2(5): 621631.##[10] Das D. Optimal placement of capacitors in radial##distribution system using a FuzzyGA method. ##Systems 2008, 30, pp. 361367.##[11] Kim K.H., Rhee S.B., Kim S.N., You S.K.##Application of ESGA hybrid approach for voltage##profile improvement by capacitor placement. IEEE##Transactions on Power Delivery 2003, 18(4), pp.1516##[12] C.L.Borges T., M. Falca˜o D. Optimal distributed##generation allocation for reliability, losses, and voltage##improvement. International Journal of Electrical Power##and Energy Systems 2006, 28, pp. 413420.##[13] Biswas S., Kumar Goswami S., Chatterjee A.##Optimum distributed generation placement with##voltage sag effect minimization. Energy Conversion##and Management 2012, 53, pp. 163174.##[14] Singh R.K., Goswami S.K. Optimum allocation of##distributed generations based on nodal pricing for##profit, loss reduction, and voltage improvement##including voltage rise issue. International Journal of##Electrical Power and Energy Systems 2010, 32(6), pp.##[15] Sami T., Mahaei S.M., Hashemi Namarvar M.T.,##Iravani H. Optimal placement of DGs for reliability##and loss evaluation using DIgSILENT software, in, pp.##10th International Conference on Environment and##Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), Italy, 2011.##[16] Sanghvi A.P. Measurement and application of##customer interruption cost/value of service for costbenefit##reliability evaluation, pp. some Commonly##Raised Issues, IEEE Transactions on Power System,##1990, 5(4), pp. 13331344.##[17] Wacker G., Billinton R. Customer cost of electric##service, Proceedings of the IEEE, 1989, 77(6), pp.##[18] billinton R., wangdee W. Customer outage cost##evaluation of an actual failure event, in, pp. Canadian##Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering##(CCECE), Canada, 2002.##[19] Lehtonen M., Lemstrom B. Comparison of the##methods for assessing the customers outage costs, in,##pp. Proceedings of International Conference on Energy##Management and Power Delivery (EMPD '95),##Finaland, 1995.##[20] Shirmohammadi D., Hong H.W., Semlyn A., Luo##G.X. A compensation based power flow method for##weakly meshed distribution and transmission network.##IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 1988, 3(2), pp.##[21] Singh D., Singh D., Verma K. S. Multiobjective##optimization for distributed generation planning with##load models. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems##2009, 24(1), pp. 427436.##[22] Brest J., Greiner S., Boskovic B., Mernik M.,##Zumer V., Selfadapting control parameters in##differential evolution: A comparative study on##numerical benchmark problems, IEEE Transactions on##Evolutionary Computation 2006, 10, pp.646657.##[23] ChoWdhury A. A., AgarWal S.K., Koval D.O.##Reliability modeling of distributed generation in##conventional distribution systems planning and##analysis. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications##2003, 39(5), pp. 14931498.##]
Nonlinear H Control for Uncertain Flexible Joint Robots with Unscented Kalman Filter
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2
Todays, use of combination of two or more methods was considered to control of systems. In this paper ispresented how to design of a nonlinear H∞ (NLH∞) controller for flexible joint robot (FJR) based on boundedUKF state estimator. The UKF has more advantages to standard EKF such as low bios and no need toderivations. In this research, based on spong primary model for FJRs, same as rigid robots links position areselected as differential equations variables. Then this model was reformed to NL H differential equations.The results of simulations demonstrate that mixed of NL H controller and UKF estimator lead toconventional properties such as stability and good tracking. Also, Simulation results show the efficiency andsuperiority of the proposed method in compare with EKF.
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[[1] L.M. Sweet and M.C. Good, "Redefinition of the##robot motion control problems: Effects of plant##dynamics, drive system constraints, and user##requirements," IEEE Int. Conf. on Decision and##Control, 1984.##[2] G. Cesareo and R. Marino, "On the controllability##properties of elastic robots," Int. Conf. Analysis##and Optimization of Systems, 1984.##[3] M.W. Spong, "The control of FJRs: A survey," in##New Trends and Applications of Distributed##Parameter control systems, G.Chen, E.B.Lee,##W.Littman, L.Markus , 1990.##[4] S. Ozgoli, “Design and implementation of a##position controller for a flexible joint robot in##presence of actuator saturation,” PhD thesis##proposal, Electrical Eng. Dept., K.N.Toosi##University of Technology, 2003.##[5] A.Isidori and W.kang, "H∞ Control via##measurement feedback for general nonlinear##systems," IEEE Transaction on Automatic control,##Vol. 40, PP.466472, 1995.##[6] Yusun Fu, Zuohua Tian, Songjiao Shi, "Robust H∞##control of uncertain nonlinear systems," Elsevier,##Automatica 42 (2006) 1547 – 1552##[7] Huang, J., & Lin, C. F. "Numerical approach to##computing nonlinear H∞ control laws," Journal of##Guidance, Control and Dynamics, 1995, 18(5),##989–993.##[8] Matthew Rhudy1,*, Yu Gu1 and Marcello R.##Napolitano1 "An Analytical Approach for##comparing Linearization Methods in EKF and##UKF" Int J Adv Robotic Sy, 2013, Vol. 10,##[9] Mark W. Spong, Seth Hutchinson, M. Vidyasagar,##(2006) "Robot Modeling and Control", Industrial##Robot: An International Journal, Vol. 33 Iss: 5,##]
PassivityBased Control of the DCDC Buck Converters in HighPower Applications
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2
In this paper, a novel approach for control of the DCDC buck converter in highpower and lowvoltage applications is proposed. Designed method is developed according to passivity based controller which is able to stabilize output voltage in a wide range of operation. It is clear that in highpower applications, parasitic elements of the converter may become comparable with load value and hence, in this paper all of the converted parasitic elements are modeled during development of the controller. In order to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method, designed controller is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink toolbox. Presented simulation result proves that the developed controller has acceptable dynamic and steadystate responses which are compared with a standard PI controller in highpower applications.
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58
voltage control
nonlinear control systems
uncertainty
Lyapunov method
DCDC power converters
[[1] Salimi, M.; Soltani, J.; Mrkadeh, G.A.; Abjadi,##N.R., "Indirect output voltage regulation of DCDC##buck/boost converter operating in##continuous and discontinuous conduction modes##using adaptive backstepping approach," Power##Electronics, IET , vol.6, no.4, pp.732,741, April##[2] Kumar, K.R.; Jeevananthan, S., "Design of##Sliding Mode Control for Negative Output##Elementary Super Lift Luo Converter operated##in Continuous Conduction##Mode," Communication Control and Computing##Technologies (ICCCCT), 2010 IEEE##International Conference on , vol., no.,##pp.138,148, 79 Oct. 2010##[3] Wang, T.G.; Xunwei Zhou; Lee, F.C., "A low##voltage high efficiency and high power density##DC/DC converter," Power Electronics##Specialists Conference, 1997. PESC '97##Record., 28th Annual IEEE , vol.1, no.,##pp.240,245 vol.1, 2227 Jun 1997##[4] Hwu, K. I.; Tau, Y. T., "A Forward Converter##Having an FPGAbased PID Controller with##Parameters Onine Tuned," Power Electronics##and Drives Systems, 2005. PEDS 2005.##International Conference on , vol.2, no.,##pp.1239,1243, 2801 Nov. 2005##[5] Sumita Dhali, P.Nageshwara Rao,Praveen##Mande and K.Venkateswara Rao, "PWMBased##Sliding Mode Controller for DCDC Boost ##Converter,” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp.618623, JanFeb 2012##[6] Salimi, M.; Soltani, J.; Markadeh, G.A., "A novel method on adaptive backstepping control of buck choppers," Power Electronics, Drive Systems and Technologies Conference (PEDSTC), 2011 2nd , vol., no., pp.562,567, 1617 Feb. 2011##[7] Kurokawa, F.; Maeda, Y.; Shibata, Y.; Maruta, H.; Takahash, T.; Bansho, K.; Tanaka, T.; Hirose, K., "A novel digital PID controlled dcdc converter," Power Electronics Electrical Drives Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2010 International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.50,53, 1416 June 2010##[8] Salimi, M.; Soltani, J.; Zakipour, A.; Hajbani, V., "Sliding mode control of the DCDC flyback converter with zero steadystate error," Power Electronics, Drive Systems and Technologies Conference (PEDSTC), 2013 4th , vol., no., pp.158,163, 1314 Feb. 2013##[9] Zengshi Chen, "PI and Sliding Mode Control of a Cuk Converter," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.27, no.8, pp.3695,3703, Aug. 2012##[10] Adel Zakipour, Mahdi Salimi, "On backstepping controller Design in buck/boost DCDC Converter," International Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Civil Engineering (ICEECE'2011) Pattaya Dec, 2011##[11] Salimi, M.; Soltani, J.; Zakipour, A., "Adaptive nonlinear control of DCDC buck/boost converters with parasitic elements consideration," Control, Instrumentation and Automation (ICCIA), 2011 2nd International Conference on , vol., no., pp.304,309, 2729 Dec. 2011##[12] SiraRa re , H rtega, R , assivit based controllers for the stabilization of DCtoDC power converters," Decision and Control, 1995., Proceedings of the 34th IEEE Conference on , vol.4, no., pp.3471,3476 vol.4, 1315 Dec 1995##[13] Hebert t Sira Ramirez, Romeo Ortega, Mauricio GarfiaEsteban and Eafael PerezMoreno, "Passivity Based regulation of a class of multivariable DC to DCpower converter,"##13th Triennial Woerld congress sanfancisco USA, IFAC, 1996##[14] AnguloNunez, M.I.; SiraRamirez, H., "Flatness in the passivity based control of DCtoDC power converters," Decision and Control, 1998. Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Conference on , vol.4, no., pp.4115,4120 vol.4, 1618 Dec 1998##[15] Zhaohua Yang; Leitao Wu, "A new passivitybased control method and simulation for DC/DC converter," Intelligent Control and Automation, 2004. WCICA 2004. Fifth World Congress on , vol.6, no., pp.5582,5585 Vol.6, 1519 June 2004##[16] Kwasinski, A.; Krein, P.T., "PassivityBased Control of Buck Converters with ConstantPower Loads," Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2007. PESC 2007. IEEE , vol., no., pp.259,265, 1721 June 2007##[17] Wang Bingyuan; Feng Hui, "The BuckBoost converter adopting passivitybased adaptive control strategy and its application," Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC), 2012 7th International , vol.3, no., pp.1877,1882, 25 June 2012##[18] Mahdi Salimi, Jafar Soltani, Gholamreza Arab Markadeh and Navid Reza Abjadi, "Adaptive nonlinear control of the DCDC buck converters operating in CCM and DCM," EUROPEAN TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRICAL POWER Euro. Trans. Electr. Power Published online in Wiley Online Library, (2012)##[19] Bingyuan Wang; Yuling Ma, "Research on the passivitybased control strategy of BuckBoost converters with a wide input power supply range," Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems (PEDG), 2010 2nd IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.304,308, 1618 June 2010##[20] YoungIk Son; InHyuk Kim, "Complementary PID Controller to PassivityBased Nonlinear Control of Boost Converters With Inductor Resistance," Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on , vol.20, no.3, pp.826,834, May 2012##[21] Gavini, L.; Izadian, A., "Feedforward excess passivitybased control of buckboost##converters," IECON 201238th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society , vol., no., pp.2289,2294, 2528 Oct. 2012##]
Synchronization of Chaotic FractionalOrder LuLu Systems with Active Sliding Mode Control
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2
Synchronization of chaotic and Lu system has been done using the active sliding mode control strategy. Regarding the synchronization task as a control problem, fractional order mathematics is used to express the system and active sliding mode for synchronization. It has been shown that, not only the performance of the proposed method is satisfying with an acceptable level of control signal, but also a rather simple stability analysis is performed. The latter is usually a complicated task for nonlinear chaotic systems.
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67
Fractional Calculus
fractional order active sliding mode controller
Synchronization
LuLu
[[1] Butzer PL, Westphal U. An introduction to fractional calculus. Singapore: World Scientific; 2000.##[2] Ahmed E, Elgazzar AS. On fractional order differential equations model for nonlocal epidemics. Physica A 2007;379:607–14.##[3] Ahmad WM, ElKhazali R. Fractionalorder dynamical models of Love. Chaos Soliton Fract 2007;33:1367–75.##[4] A. Le Me´haute´ , Les Ge´ome´ tries Fractales, Eidtions Herme` s, Paris, France, 1990.##[5] R. de Levie, Fractals and rough electrodes, J. Electroanal. Chem. 281 (1990) 1–21.##[6] S. Westerlund, Dead matter has memory! (capacitor model), Phys. Scrip. 43 (2) (1991) 174–179.##[7] T. Kaplan, L.J. Gray, S.H. Liu, Selfaffine fractal model for a metalelectrolyte interface, Phys. Rev. B 35 (10) (1987) 5379–5381.##[8] E. Ott, C. Grebogi, and J. A. Yorke, “Controlling chaos,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 1196–1199, 1990.##[9] Y.G. Hong, J.K. Wang. Finite time stabilization for a class of nonlinear systems, 18 8th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, Kunming, 2004, pp. 11941199. ##[10] S. Boccaletti, J. Kurths, G. Osipov, D.L. Valladares, C.S. Zhou. The synchronization of chaotic systems, Physics Reports, 2002, 366:1101.##[11] F. Liu, Y. Ren, X.M. Shan, Z.L. Qiu. A linear feedback synchronization theoremfor a class of chaotic systems, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 2002, 13:723730.##[12] H. Zhang, X.K. Ma, W.Z. Liu. Synchronization of chaotic systems with parametric uncertainty using active sliding mode control, Chaos, Solitons andFractals, 2004, 21:12491257.##[13] H. Fotsin, S. Bowong, J. Daafouz. Adaptive synchronization of two chaotic systems consisting of modified Van der PolDuffing and Chua oscillators, Chaos,Solitons and Fractals, 2005, 26:215229.##[14] Dastranj, Mohammad Reza, Mojtdaba Rouhani, and Ahmad Hajipoor. "Design of Optimal Fractional Order PID Controller Using PSO Algorithm." International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering 4, no. 3 (2012).##[15] A. Charef, H. H. Sun, Y. Y. Tsao, B. Onaral, IEEE Trans. Auto. Contr. 37: 14651470(1992)##[16] C. G. Li, G. R. Chen, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 22, 549~554(2004)##[17] W. M. Ahmad, J. C. Sprott, Chaos Solitons & Fractals 16, 339351(2003)##[18] H. Zhang, X.K. Ma, W.Z. Liu, Synchronization of chaotic systems with parametric uncertainty using active sliding mode control, Chaos, Solitons Fractals 21 (2004) 1249–1257.##[19] D. Matignon, Stability results for fractional differential equations with applications to control processing, Computational Engineering in Systems and Application multiconference, vol. 2, IMACS, in: IEEESMC Proceedings, Lille, France, July 1996,pp. 963–968.##[20] G. Chen, T. Ueta, Yet another attractor, Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 9 (1999) 1465–1466.##]
Optimization of the Lyapunov Based Nonlinear Controller Parameters in a SinglePhase GridConnected Inverter
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2
In this paper, optimization of the backstepping controller parameters in a gridconnected singlephase inverter is studied using Imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The controller is developed for the system based on statespace averaged model. By selection of a suitable Lyapunov function, stability of the proposed controller is proved in a wide range of operation. Considering different optimization algorithms, steadystate and dynamic responses of the developed system are studied. In addition, THD values for different test are compared. Finally, to verify accuracy of the proposed method, designed controller is simulated using MATLAB/Simulink software.
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78
Gridconnected inverter
nonlinear controller
Imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA)
Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm
[[1] L. DongChoon and G. M. Lee, "Linear control of inverter output voltage in overmodulation," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 44, pp. 590592, 1997.##[2] H. Komurcugil, "SteadyState Analysis and PassivityBased Control of SinglePhase PWM CurrentSource Inverters," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 57, pp. 10261030, 2010.##[3] I. S. Kim and M. J. Youn, "Variablestructure observer for solararray current estimation in a photovoltaic powergeneration system," Electric Power Applications, IEE Proceedings , vol. 152, pp. 953959, 2005.##[4] P. Mattavelli and F. P. Marafao, "Repetitivebased control for selective harmonic compensation in active power filters," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 51, pp. 10181024, 2004.##[5] Z. Kai, K. Yong, X. Jian, and C. Jian, "Direct repetitive control of SPWM inverter for UPS purpose," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 18, pp. 784792, 2003.##[6] S. Guoqiao, Z. Xuancai, Z. Jun, and X. Dehong, "A New Feedback Method for PR Current Control of LCLFilterBased GridConnected Inverter," Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 57, pp. 20332041, 2010.##[7] S. Chen, Y. M. Lai, S. C. Tan, and C. K. Tse, "Fast response low harmonic distortion control scheme for voltage source inverters," Power Electronics, IET, vol. 2, pp. 574584, 2009.##[8] X. Yaosuo, C. Liuchen, K. Sren Baekhj, J. Bordonau, and T. Shimizu, "Topologies of singlephase inverters for small distributed ##power generators: an overview," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 19, pp. 13051314, 2004.##[9] Y. Zhilei, X. Lan, and Y. Yangguang, "Seamless Transfer of SinglePhase GridInteractive Inverters Between GridConnected and StandAlone Modes," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 25, pp. 15971603, 2010.##[10] H. Xiang, Y. Xu, L. Tao, H. Lang, and C. Wenjie, "A SlidingMode Controller With Multiresonant Sliding Surface for SinglePhase GridConnected VSI With an LCL Filter," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 28, pp. 22592268, 2013.##[11] W. RongJong, L. ChihYing, W. WenChuan, and H. HsinNing, "Design of backstepping control for highperformance inverter with standalone and gridconnected powersupply modes," Power Electronics, IET, vol. 6, pp. 752762, 2013.##[12] E. AtashpazGargari and C. Lucas, "Imperialist competitive algorithm: An algorithm for optimization inspired by imperialistic competition," in Evolutionary Computation, 2007. CEC 2007. IEEE Congress on, 2007, pp. 46614667.##[13] J. H. Holland, Adaptation in natural and artificial systems: an introductory analysis with applications to biology, control, and artificial intelligence: MIT Press, 1992.##[14] J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, "Particle swarm optimization," in Neural Networks, 1995. Proceedings., IEEE International Conference on, 1995, pp. 19421948 vol.4.##[15] M. Kohansal, J. S. Moghani, M. Rahmatian, and G. B. Gharehpetian, "Multiobjective optimization to improve transient performance of VSI in an offgrid microgird using imperialist competitive algorithm," in Control, Instrumentation and Automation (ICCIA), 2011 2nd International Conference on, 2011, pp. 536541.##[16] R. Toorani, M. Ahmadi, A. Radmehr, and M. Ahmadi, "Optimal design of distributed generation in gridconnected mode of operation using genetic algorithm," in Electrical Engineering (ICEE), 2013 21st Iranian Conference on, 2013, pp. 15.##[17] A. Kessal and L. Rahmani, "GAOptimized Parameters of Sliding Mode Controller based on both Output voltage and Input Current with an Application in the PFC of AC/DC Converters," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. PP, pp. 11, 2013.##[18] P. Bhatt, R. Roy, and S. P. Ghoshal, "GA/particle swarm intelligence based optimization of two specific varieties of controller devices applied to twoarea multiunits automatic generation control," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 32, pp. 299310, 5// 2010.##[19] W. AlSaedi, S. W. Lachowicz, and D. Habibi, "An optimal current control strategy for a threephase gridconnected photovoltaic system using Particle Swarm Optimization," in Power Engineering and Automation Conference (PEAM), 2011 IEEE, 2011, pp. 286290.##[20] "IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems," IEEE Std 5191992, pp. 1112, 1993.##]
Analytical Study of Optical BiStability of a SingleBus Resonator Based on InGaAs MicroRing Array
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In this paper, for the first time to our knowledge, we investigate the optical bistability in a compact parallel array of micro ring resonators with 5μm radius, induced by optical nonlinearity. Due to the nature of perfect light confinement, resonance and accumulation process in a ring resonator, optical nonlinear effects, even at small optical power of a few milliwatts in this structure are observable. Different optical applications such as: alloptical switching, memory, logic gates and modulators, due to optical bistability in a ring resonator are possible. By using of compound semiconductors, instead of silicon that have weakly nonlinear optical properties, we improve the performance of ringresonator based devices. Also by using of a polymer cladding layer with negative thermooptic coefficient, we have eliminate the temperature created nonlinearity which is a very slow process, so the switching speed of a few MHz increases to several tens of GHz. With plotting the transfer function of the resonator, a hysteresis loop in a few milliwatts is observed, that by using of ring resonator array, although the bandwidth is reduced, but the width of the hysteresis loop and resolution between both steady state increases.
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Optical Bistability
Nonlinear Optic
Ring Resonator Array
Resonance Wavelength
Hysteresis Loop
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