2015
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15
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66
Robust Control of a Quadrotor
2
2
In this paper, a robust tracking control method for automatic takeoff and trajectory tracking of a quadrotor helicopter is presented. The designed controller includes two parts: a position controller and an attitude controller. The attitude controller is designed by using the sliding mode control (SMC) method to track the desired pitch and roll angles, which are the output of position controller. The position controller is also a design using SMC and the attitude controller is faster than position controller.
1

1
11


Kamal
Torabi
Iran
eng.torabi_k@yahoo.com


Alireza
Ghafari Kashani
Iran
ghafari_azad@yahoo.com
Quadrotor helicopter
Robust control
SMC
Trajectory Tracking
[[1] [P. Castillo, R. Lozano, and A. E. Dzul, (2005). Modelling and control of miniflying machines. London, UK: SpringerVerlag.##[2] [I. Fantoni, and R. Lozano, (2002). Nonlinear control for underactuated mechanical systems. London: SpringerVerlag.##[3] V. Mistler, A. Benallegue, and N.K. M'Sirdi, (2001). “Exact linearization and noninteracting control of a 4 rotors helicopter via dynamic feedback,” In Proc. IEEE int. workshop on robot and human inter. Communic.##[4] S. Bouabdallah, P. Murrieri, and R. Siegwart, (2004). “Design and control of an indoor micro quadrotor,” In Proc. IEEE Int. conf. on rob. and automat., Vol. 5, New Orleans, USA, pp. 4393_4398.##[5] P. Castillo, A. Dzul, R. Lozano, (2004). “Realtime stabilization and tracking of a fourrotor mini rotorcraft,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Tech. 12(4), 510–516.##[6] Z. Zuo, (2010). “Trajectory tracking control design with commandfiltered compensation for a quadrotor,” IET Control Theory Applic. 4(11), 2343–2355.##[7] A. Tayebi, S. McGilvray, (2006). “Attitude stabilization of a VTOL quadrotor aircraft,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Tech. 14(3), 562–571.##[8] G.V. Raffo, M.G. Ortega, and F.R. Rubio, (2010). “An integral predictive/nonlinear H∞ control structure for a quadrotor helicopter,” Automatica 46(1), 29–39.##[9] A. Das, K. Subbarao, and F. Lewis, (2009). “Dynamic inversion with zerodynamics stabilization for quadrotor control,” IET Control Theory Applic. 3(3), 303–314.##[10] S. Bertrand, N. Guenard, T. Hamel, H. PietLahanier, and L. Eck, (2011). “A hierarchical controller for miniature VTOL UAVs: design and stability analysis using singular perturbation theory,” Control Eng. Pract. 19(10), 1099–1108.##[11] G.M. Hoffmann, H. Huang, S.L. Waslander, and C.J. Tomlin, (2011). “Precision flight control for a multivehicle quadrotor helicopter testbed,” Control Eng. Pract. 19(9), 1023–1036.##[12] J.C.A. Vilchis, B. Brogliato, A. Dzul, R. Lozano, (2003). “Nonlinear modelling and control of helicopters,” Automatica 45(10), 1583–1596.##[13] K. Peng, G. Cai, B.M. Chen, M. Dong, K.Y. Lum, and T.H. Lee, (2009). “Design and implementation of an autonomous flight control law for a UAV helicopter,” Automatica 39(9), 2333–2338.##[14] Moradi, Mohammad Mehdi. "The reduction coefficient of PID controller by using PSO algorithm method for Flexible singlearm robot system." Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Electrical Engineering 3.12 (2015): 4454.##]
Monitoring PipeWall Corrosion Rate by Ultrasonic Technique
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2
thickness and corrosion/erosion rate. In this thesis, a combination of signal processing techniques are used to estimate the corrosion rate estimates based on MBE. Corrosion rate is estimated based on ultrasonic pipe wall thickness data is collected over a short period of time using MBE model. This technique is based on data collected from the speedometer applied for thinning and both indicate that they were able to estimate the rate of corrosion in short periods of time and with good accuracy.
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13
23


Behzad
Esmaeili Aghdam
Iran
b.esmaeiliaghdam@gmail.com


Hossein
Nasir Aghdam
Iran
h nasir59@gmail.com
Ultrasonic
Pipe Corrosion
ModelBased Estimation
Signal processing
[[1] F.W. Mauldin Jr, F. Viola, W.F. Walker, (2009).##Reduction of echo decorrelation via complex##principal component filtering, Ultrasound Med.##Biol. 35 (8) (1325–1343).##[2] T. Rommetveit, T.F. Johansen, R. Johnsen, (2010). A combined approach for high resolution corrosion monitoring and temperature compensation using ultrasound, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59 (11) 2843–2853.##[3] F. Honarvar, F. Salehi, V. Safavi, A. Mokhtari, A.##N. Sinclair, (2013). Ultrasonic monitoring of##erosion/corrosion thinning rates in industrial##piping systems, Ultrasonics 53 1251–1258.##[4] H.S. Chung, (2010). A review of CANDU feeder wall thinning, Nucl. Eng. Technol. 42 (5) 568–575.##[5] A.N. Sinclair, V. Safavi, F. Honarvar, (2011). Ultrasonic measurement of erosion/ corrosion rates in industrial piping systems, in: D.O. Thompson, D.E. Chimenti (Eds.), Review of progress in quantitative nondestructive evaluation, AIP Conf. Proc., ##[6] F. Honarvar et al., (2004). Improving the timeresolution and signaltonoise ratio of ultrasonic NDE signals, Ultrasonics 41 (9) 755–763.##]
The Design of a New Double Loop Controller For Simultaneous Adjustment of Input and Output Voltages of SinglePhase GridConnected Inverter
2
2
Although LCL filters are used widely in the grid connected inverters to reduce highorderharmonics, such a system increases system order and therefore sustainable design of closedloopcontroller system will be complicated. Recently, the singleloop control strategy has beensuggested for L or LC filter based gridconnected inverters. However, the use of singleloopcontrol directly in LCL filterbased inverters may cause instability. In this paper, a new doubleloopcontrol strategy is presented which includes a voltage external loop and an internal loop offilter capacitor current. The external loop controls the input voltage of the gridconnectedinverter. The internal loop improves system stability margin and removes the resonance of LCLfilter. To obtain the transfer function of system, singlephase instantaneous power theory is used.The computer simulation has proved the feasibility of the proposed control
1

25
41


Parisa
Alipour
Iran
aigoun_1147@yahoo.com


Mehdi
Salimi
Iran
m.salimi@iauardabil.ac.ir
gridconnected inverters
LCL filter
doubleloop control
statespace modeling
[[1] J. M. Carrasco, L. G. Franquelo, J. T. Bialasiewicz, E. Galvan, R.C. P. Guisado, M. A. M. Prats, J. I. Leon, and N. MorenoAlfonso, (2006). “Power electronic for the grid integration of renewable energy sources: a survey,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 1002 1006.##[2] A. A. Ferreira, J. A. Pomilio, G. Spiazzi, and L. de Araujo Silva, (2008). “Energy management fuzzy logic supervisory for electric vehicle power supplies system,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 107115.##[3] E. Twining and D. G. Holmes, (2003). “Grid current regulation of a threephase voltage source inverter with an LCL input filter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 888895.##[4] P. C. Loh and D. G. Holmes, (2005). “Analysis of multiloop control strategies for LC/CL/LCLfiltered voltagesource and currentsource inverters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 644654, Mar.##[5] J. Dannehl, F. W. Fuchs, and P. B. Thøgersen, (2010). “PI state space current control of gridconnected PWM converters with LCL filters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 25, No. 9, pp. 23202330.##[6] Liserre M., Blaabjerg F., Hansen S., (2005). “Design and Control of an LCLFilterBased ThreePhase Active Rectifier,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 12811291.##[7] Aslain Ovono Zue and Ambrish Chandra, (2006). “Simulation and Stability Analysis of a 100kW Grid Connected LCL Photovoltaic Inverter for Industry,” Power Engineering scociety general meeting 2006, pp.22392244.##[8] M. Liserre, A. Dell’Aquila, and F. Blaabjerg, (2004). “Genetic algorithmbased design of the active damping for an LCLfilter threephase active rectifier,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 7686.##[9] M. Liserre, R. Teodorescu, and F. Blaabjerg, (2006). “Stability of Photovoltaic and Wind Turbine GridConnected Inverters for a Large Set of Grid Impedance Values,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 21, no.1, pp. 263 272.##[10] M. Liserre, A. Dell’Aquila, and F. Blaabjerg, (2002). “Stability improvement of an LCLfilter based threephase active rectifier,” PESC’02, vol. 3, pp. 11951201.##[11] Leonardo Augusto Serpa, Srinivas Ponnaluri, Peter Mantovanelli Barbosa and Johann Walter Kolar, (2007). “A Modified Direct Power Control Strategy Allowing the Connection of ThreePhase Inverters to the Grid Through LCL Filters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol.43, no. 5, pp. 13881400.##[12] Guoqiao Shen, Dehong Xu, Danji Xi, Xiaoming Yuan, (2006). “An Improved Control Strategy for Gridconnected Voltage Source Inverters with a LCL Filter,” APEC’06, pp. 10671073.##[13] Remus Teodorescu, Frede Blaabjerg, Marco Liserre and Antonio Dell’Aquila, (2003). “A stable threephase LCLfilter based active rectifier without damping,” IAS’03, vol. 3, pp. 15521557.##[14] E. Twining and D.G. Holmes, (2003). “Grid Current Regulation of a ThreePhase Voltage Source Inverter with an LCL Input Filter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 888895.##[15] L. Mihalache, (2005). “A high performance DSP controller for threephase PWM rectifiers with ultra low input current THD under unbalanced and distorted input voltage,” IAS’05, vol. 1, pp. 138144.##[16] A. Papavasiliou, S.A. Papathanassiou, S.N. Manias and G. Demetriadis, (2007). “Current Control of a Voltage Source Inverter Connected to the Grid via LCL Filter,” PESC’07, pp. 23792384.##[17] F.A. Magueed and J. Svensson, (2005). “Control of VSC connected to the grid through LCLfilter to achieve balanced currents,” IAS’05, vol. 1, pp. 572578.##[18] E. Wu and P.W. Lehn, (2006). “Digital current control of a voltage source converter with active damping of LCL resonance,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1364 1373.##[19] Fei Liu, Shanxu Duan, Pengwei Xu, Guoqiang Chen and Fangrui Liu, (2007). “Design and Control of ThreePhase PV Grid Connected ##Converter with LCL Filter,” IECON’07, pp. 16561661.##[20] C. Y. Hsu and H. Y. Wu, (1996). “A new singlephase active power filter with reduced energystorage capacity,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng.—Elect. Power Appl., vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 25–30.##[21] K. Mahabir, G. Verghese, J. Thottuvelil, and A. Heyman, (1990). “Linear averaged and sampled data models for large signal control of high power factor AC–DC converters,” in Proc. IEEE PESC, pp. 372–381.##[22] R. Ridley, (1989). “Average smallsignal analysis of the boost power factor correction circuit,” in Proc. Virginia Power Electron. Center Semin., Blacksburg, VA, pp. 108–120.##]
Using an Appropriate Controller for Independent Current Control for Motoring of Force Windings of Bearing less Induction Motor
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2
A bearingless induction machine has combined characteristics of induction motor and magnetic bearings. Therefore, the advantages are small size and lowcost. In the magnetic suspension of the bearingless motors, suspension forces are generated based on the feedback signals of displacement sensors detecting the movement of the rotor shaft. The suspension forces are generated taking an advantage of the strong flux distribution of a revolving magnetic field in the air gap between the stator and rotor. Thus, information of the instantaneous orientation and amplitude of the revolving magnetic field is required in a controller of the bearingless motor. Therefore, vector control methods are necessary for transient conditions. For control improvement of vector control, a PID controller can be used in horizontal and vertical force paths. Radial positions x and y are detected by displacement sensors.
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43
52


Naser Olad
Abdollahi Aghdam
Iran
naserolad@yahoo.com
bearingless induction
Suspension
flux distribution
sensors
control improvement
[[1] A. Chiba, and T. Fukao, (1998). " Optimal Design of Rotor Circuits in Induction type Bearingless Motors", IEEE Trans., on Magn., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 21082110.##[2] T. Suzuki, A. Chiba, M. A. Rahman, and T. Fukao, (2000). "An AirGapFluxOriented Vector Controller for Stable Operation of Bearingless Induction Motors", IEEE Trans., on Indus. Appl., vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 10691076.##[3] Y. He and H. Nian, (2003). “Analytical model and feedback control of the levitation force for an inductiontype bearingless motor,” in Proceedings of the the 5th International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems, pp. 242–246.##[4] T. Tera, Y. Yamauchi, A. Chiba, T. Fukao, and M. A. Rahman, (2006). " Performances of Bearingless and Sensorless Induction Motor Drive Based on Mutual Inductances and Rotor Displacements Estimation", IEEE Trans., on Indus., Elec., vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 187194.##[5] T. Hiromi, T. Katou, A. Chiba, M. A. Rahman, and T. Fukao, (2007). " A Novel Magnetic SuspensionForce Compensation in Bearingless InductionMotor Drive With SquirrelCage Rotor", IEEE Trans., on Indus. Appl., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 6676.##[6] S. Ueno, and Y. Okada, (2000). " Characteristics and Control of a Bidirectional Axial Gap Combined Motor–Bearing", IEEE/ASME Trans., on Mechatronics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 310318.##[7] Z.Q. Deng, X.L. Wang, B. Li, L.G. He, and Y.G. Yan, (2003). “Study on independent control of the levitation subsystem of bearingless induction motors,” Proceedings of the Chinese Society of Electrical Engineering, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 107–111.##[8] P. C. Loh, D. M. Vilathgamuwa, S. K. Tang, and H. L. Long, (2004). "Multilevel Dynamic Voltage Restorer", IEEE Power Elec., col. 2, no. 4, pp. 125130.##[9] Y. Wang, Z.Q. Deng, and X.L.Wang, (2008). Direct torque control of bearingless induction motor,” Proceedings of the Chinese Society of Electrical Engineering, vol. 28, no. 21, pp. 80–84.##[10] T. Tera, Y. Yamauchi, A. Chiba, T. Fukao, and M. A. Rahman, (2006). " Performances of Bearingless and Sensorless Induction Motor##Drive Based on Mutual Inductances and Rotor Displacements Estimation", IEEE Trans., on Indus., Elec., vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 187194.##[11] K. Asami, A. Chiba, M. A. Rahman, T. Hoshino, and A. Nakajima, (2005). " Stiffness Analysis of a Magnetically Suspended Bearingless Motor With Permanent Magnet Passive Positioning", IEEE Trans., on Magn., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 38203822.##[12] [12] J. Amemiya, A. Chiba, D. G. Dorrell, and T. Fukao, (2005). " Basic Characteristics of a ConsequentPoleType Bearingless Motor", IEEE Trans., on Magn., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 8289.##[13] M. T. Bartholet, T. Nussbaumer, and J. W. Kolar, (2011). "Comparison of VoltageSource Inverter Topologies for TwoPhase Bearingless Slice Motors", IEEE Trans., on Indus. Elec., vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 19211925.##[14] M. Nakagava, Y. Asano, A. Mizuguchi, A. Chiba, C. X. Xuan, M. Ooshima, M. Takemoto, T. Fukao, O. Ichigava, and D. G. Dorrell, (2006). "Optimization of Stator Design in a ConsequentPole Type Bearingless Motor Considering Magnetic Suspension Characteristics", IEEE Trans., on Magn., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 34223324.##[15] Chiba, D. Akamatsu, T. Fukao, M. A. Rahman, (2008). "An Improved Rotor Resistance Identification Method for Magnetic Field Regulation in Bearingless Induction Motor Drives", IEEE Trans., on Indus., Elec., vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 852860.##[16] Chiba, T. Fukao, and M. A. Rahman, (2008). "Vibration Suppression of a Flexible Shaft With a Simplified Bearingless Induction Motor Drive", IEEE Trans., on Indus. Appl., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 745752.##[17] Laiho, A. Sinervo, J. Orivuori, K. Tammi, A. Arkkio, and K. Zenger, (2009). "Attenuation of Harmonic Rotor Vibration in a Cage Rotor Induction Machine by a SelfBearing Force Actuator", IEEE Trans., on Magn., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 53885398.##[18] A. Sinervo, and A. Arkkio, (2014). " Rotor Radial Position Control and its Effect on the Total Efficiency of a Bearingless Induction Motor With a Cage Rotor", IEEE Trans., on Magn., vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 19.##Naser Olad Abdollahi Aghdam : Using an appropriate controller for independent current control …##[19] X. Sun, L. Chen, Z. Yang, and H. Zhu, (2013). "SpeedSensorless Vector Control of a Bearingless Induction Motor With Artificial Neural Network Inverse Speed Observer", IEEE/ASME Trans., on Mechatronics, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 13571366.##[20] B. Wenshao, H. Shenghua, W. Shanming, and L. Wensheng, (2009). "General Analytical Models of Inductance Matrices of FourPole Bearingless Motors With TwoPole Controlling Windings", IEEE Trans., on Magn., vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 33163321.##[21] E. F. Rodriguez, and J. A. Santisteban, (2011). "An Improved Control System for a Split Winding Bearingless Induction Motor", IEEE Trans., on Indus. Elec., vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 34013408.##[22] V. F. Victor, F. O. Quintaes, J. S. B. Lopes, L. D. S. Junior, A. S. Lock, and A. O. Salazar, (2012). "Analysis and Study of a Bearingless AC Motor Type Divided Winding, Based on a Conventional Squirrel Cage Induction Motor", IEEE Trans., on Magn., vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 35713574.##[23] A.S. AbdelKhalik, S. Ahmed, and A. Massoud, (2014). "A bearingless coaxial magnetic gearbox", Alexanderia Engineering Journal, vol. 53, pp. 573582.##[24] Golipour, Ahad. "Optimizing speed and angle control of stepping motor by using field oriented control." Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Electrical Engineering 3.11 (2014): 110.##[25] yaghobi, Saeideh, and sajad yaghobi. "Velocity Control of Electro Hydraulic Servo System by using a Feedback Error Learning Method." Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Electrical Engineering 3.11 (2014): 3945.##]
Facial expression recognition based on Local Binary Patterns
2
2
Classical LBP such as complexity and high dimensions of feature vectors that make it necessary to apply dimension reduction processes. In this paper, we introduce an improved LBP algorithm to solve these problems that utilizes Fast PCA algorithm for reduction of vector dimensions of extracted features. In other words, proffer method (Fast PCA+LBP) is an improved LBP algorithm that is extracted from classical LBP operator. In this method, first circular neighbor operator is used for features extraction of facial expression. Then, an algorithm of Fast PCA is used for reduction of feature vector dimensions. Simulation results show that the proposed method in this paper in terms of accuracy and speed of recognition, has had a better performance compared with the same algorithm.
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61
66


Saeede Jabbarzadeh
Reyhani
Iran
s_jabbarzadeh@yahoo.com


Saeed
Meshgini
Iran
meshgini@tabrizu.ac.ir
Facial Expression Recognition
Local Binary Pattern
Support vector machine
Principal Component Analysis
Linear Discriminant Analysis
[[1] A. Kar, D. Bhattacharjee, D. K. Basu, M. Nasipuri, M. Kundu, (2011). “An Adaptive Blockbased Integrated LDP, GLCM, and Morphological Features for Face Recognition”, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 12051211.##[2] R. Verma and M.Y. Dabbagh, (2013). “Fast Facial Expression Recognition based on Local Binary Patterns”, 26th Annual IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE), pp. 14.##[3] G. Zhao and M. Pietikainen, (2007). “Dynamic Texture Recognition Using Local Binary Patterns with an Application to Facial Expressions”, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, , Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 915–928.##[4] S. Liao, W. Fan, A.C.S. Chung, and D.Y. Yeung, (2006). “Facial Expression Recognition using Advanced Local Binary Patterns, Tsallis Entropies and Global Appearance Features”, 2006 IEEE##International Conference on Image Processing, pp##665–668.##[5] Caifeng Shan, Shaogang Gong, Peter W.McOwan, (2009). “Facial Expression Recognition based on Local Binary Patterns: A Comprehensive Study”, Image and Vision Computing, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 803–816.##]
Automatic Face Recognition via Local Directional Patterns
2
2
Automatic facial recognition has many potential applications in different areas of humancomputer interaction. However, they are not yet fully realized due to the lack of an effectivefacial feature descriptor. In this paper, we present a new appearance based feature descriptor,the local directional pattern (LDP), to represent facial geometry and analyze its performance inrecognition. An LDP feature is obtained by computing the edge response values in 8 directions ateach pixel and encoding them into an 8 bit binary number using the relative strength of theseedge responses. The LDP descriptor, a distribution of LDP codes within an image or imagepatch, is used to describe each image. Two wellknown machine learning methods, templatematching and support vector machine, are used for classification using the ORL female facialexpression databases. Better classification accuracy shows the superiority of LDP descriptoragainst other appearancebased feature descriptors. Entropy + LDP + SVM is as an improvedalgorithm for facial recognition than previous presented methods that improves recognition rateby features extraction of images. Test results showed that Entropy + LDP + SVM, methodpresented in this paper, is fast and efficient. Innovation proposed in this paper is the use ofentropy operator before applying LDP feature extraction method. The test results showed that theapplication of this method on ORL database images causes 3 percent increases in comparisonwith not using entropy operator.
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53
59


Maryam
Moghaddam
Iran
m.mogaddam91@yahoo.com


Saeed
Meshgini
Iran
meshgini@tabrizu.ac.ir
Facial recognition
Local Directional Pattern
Support vector machine
Entropy
Texture Image
Features extraction
[[1] A. Kar, D. Bhattacharjee, D. K. Basu, M. Nasipuri, M. Kundu, (2011). “An Adaptive Blockbased Integrated LDP, GLCM, and Morphological Features for Face Recognition”, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computer Science, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 12251211.##[2] Ambika Ramchandra, Ravindra Kumar, (2013).##Overview of Face Recognition System##Challenges, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF##SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH##VOLUME 2, ISSUE 8.##[3] R. Verma and M.Y. Dabbagh, (2012). “Fast Facial Expression Recognition based on Local Binary Patterns”, 62th Annual IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE), pp. 14.##[4] Krishnakant Kishore, Vinit Kumar Gunjan, Gautam Bommagani , poorva Paidipelli, Pooja (2013). “Design, Implementation and Evaluation of an Algorithm for Face Recognition Based on##Modified Local Directional PatternFace##Recognition using LDP5 “International Journal of##Engineering Research Technology (IJERT)Vol. 2##[5] Taskeed Jabid, Md. Hasanul Kabir, and Oksam Chae (2010). “Robust Facial Expression Recognition Based on Local Directional Pattern”, vol. 32, no., pp. 784794, 5##]