**Abstract**

Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is an important component of power system planning. It

determines the characteristics and performance of the future electric power network and influences the power

system operation directly. Different methods have been proposed for the solution of the static transmission

network expansion planning (STNEP) problem till now. But in all of them, STNEP problem considering the

network losses, voltage level and uncertainty in demand has not been solved by improved binary particle swarm

optimization (IBPSO) algorithm. Binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) is a new population-based

intelligence algorithm and exhibits good performance on the solution of the large-scale and nonlinear

optimization problems. However, it has been observed that standard BPSO algorithm has premature

convergence when solving a complex optimization problem like STNEP. To resolve this problem, in this study,

an IBPSO approach is proposed for the solution of the STNEP problem considering network losses, voltage

level, and uncertainty in demand. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a real transmission network of the

Azerbaijan regional electric company and compared with BPSO. The simulation results show that considering

the losses even for transmission expansion planning of a network with low load growth is caused that

operational costs decreases considerably and the network satisfies the requirement of delivering electric power

more reliable to load centers. In addition, regarding the convergence curves of the two methods, it can be seen

that precision of the proposed algorithm for the solution of the STNEP problem is more than BPSO.

determines the characteristics and performance of the future electric power network and influences the power

system operation directly. Different methods have been proposed for the solution of the static transmission

network expansion planning (STNEP) problem till now. But in all of them, STNEP problem considering the

network losses, voltage level and uncertainty in demand has not been solved by improved binary particle swarm

optimization (IBPSO) algorithm. Binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) is a new population-based

intelligence algorithm and exhibits good performance on the solution of the large-scale and nonlinear

optimization problems. However, it has been observed that standard BPSO algorithm has premature

convergence when solving a complex optimization problem like STNEP. To resolve this problem, in this study,

an IBPSO approach is proposed for the solution of the STNEP problem considering network losses, voltage

level, and uncertainty in demand. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a real transmission network of the

Azerbaijan regional electric company and compared with BPSO. The simulation results show that considering

the losses even for transmission expansion planning of a network with low load growth is caused that

operational costs decreases considerably and the network satisfies the requirement of delivering electric power

more reliable to load centers. In addition, regarding the convergence curves of the two methods, it can be seen

that precision of the proposed algorithm for the solution of the STNEP problem is more than BPSO.

**Keywords**

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power transmission expansion planning,” 7th

IEEE Int Conf Electron Circuits and Syst,

Lebanon, vol. 78, pp. 642-645, 2000.

[2] VA Levi and MS Calovic, “Linearprogramming-

based decomposition method for

optimal planning of transmission network

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system expansion plans in view point of

deterministic, probabilistic and security

reliability criteria,” The 39th Hawaii Int Conf

Syst Sci, vol. 10, pp.1-10, 2006.

[4] IDJ Silva, MJ Rider, R Romero, CA Murari

“Transmission network expansion planning

considering uncertainness in demand,” IEEE

Power Eng Soc Gen Meet, vol. 2, pp. 1424-

1429, 2005.

[5] S Binato, MVF Periera, S Granville, “A new

Benders decomposition approach to solve

power transmission network design Problems,”

power transmission expansion planning,” 7th

IEEE Int Conf Electron Circuits and Syst,

Lebanon, vol. 78, pp. 642-645, 2000.

[2] VA Levi and MS Calovic, “Linearprogramming-

based decomposition method for

optimal planning of transmission network

investments,” IEE Proc Gener Transm Distrib,

vol. 140, pp. 516-522, 1993.

[3] J Choi, TR Mount, “Thomas Transmission

system expansion plans in view point of

deterministic, probabilistic and security

reliability criteria,” The 39th Hawaii Int Conf

Syst Sci, vol. 10, pp.1-10, 2006.

[4] IDJ Silva, MJ Rider, R Romero, CA Murari

“Transmission network expansion planning

considering uncertainness in demand,” IEEE

Power Eng Soc Gen Meet, vol. 2, pp. 1424-

1429, 2005.

[5] S Binato, MVF Periera, S Granville, “A new

Benders decomposition approach to solve

power transmission network design Problems,”

IEEE Trans Power Syst, vol. 16, pp. 235-240,

2001.

[6] LL Garver, “Transmission network estimation

using linear programming,” IEEE Trans Power

Appar Syst, vol. PAS-89, pp.1688-1696, 1970.

[7] IDJ Silva, MJ Rider, R Romero, CA Murari,

“Transmission network expansion planning

considering uncertainness in demand,” IEEE

Power Eng Soc Gen Meet, vol. 2, pp. 1424-

1429, 2005.

[8] P Maghouli, SH Hosseini, MO Buygi, M

Shahidehpour, “A scenario-based multiobjective

model for multi-stage transmission

expansion planning,” IEEE Trans Power Syst,

vol. 26, pp. 470-478, 2011.

[9] AML Silva, LS Rezende, LAF Manso, LC

Resende, “Reliability worth applied to

transmission expansion planning based on ant

colony system,” Int J Electr Power and Energy

Syst, vol. 32, pp. 1077-10841, 2010 .

[10] NH Sohtaoglu, “The effect of economic

parameters on power transmission planning,”

9th Mediterr Electrotech Conf, vol. 2, pp. 941-

945, 1998.

[11] B Graeber, “Generation and transmission

expansion planning in southern Africa,” 1999

IEEE Africon, vol. 14, pp. 983-988, 1999.

[12] MS Kandil, SM El-Debeiky, NE Hasanien,

“Rule-based system for determining unit

locations of a developed generation expansion

plan for transmission planning,” IEE Proc

Gener Transm Distrib, vol. 147, pp. 62-68,

2000.

[13] RS Chanda, PK Bhattacharjee, “A reliability

approach to transmission expansion planning

using minimal cut theory,” Electr Power Syst

Res, vol. 33, pp. 111-117, 1995.

[14] RS Chanda, PK Bhattacharjee, “A reliability

approach to transmission expansion planning

using fuzzy fault-tree model,” Electr Power

Syst Res, vol. 45, pp. 101-108, 1998.

[15] S Granville, MVF Pereira, GB Dantzig, B Avi-

Itzhak, M Avriel, A Monticelli, LMVG Pinto,

“Mathematical decomposition techniques for

power system expansion planning-analysis of

the linearized power flow model using the

Benders decomposition technique,” EPRI,

Technical Report, RP, pp. 2473-6, 1988.

[16] R Romero, A Monticelli, “A hierarchical

decomposition approach for transmission

network expansion planning,” IEEE Trans

Power Syst, vol. 9, pp. 373-380, 1994.

[17] S Binato, GC de Oliveira, Araujo JL, “A

greedy randomized adaptive search procedure

for transmission expansion planning,” IEEE

Trans Power Syst, vol. 16, pp. 247-253, 2001.

[18] STY Lee, KL Hocks, H Hnyilicza,

“Transmission expansion by branch and bound

integer programming with optimal cost

2001.

[6] LL Garver, “Transmission network estimation

using linear programming,” IEEE Trans Power

Appar Syst, vol. PAS-89, pp.1688-1696, 1970.

[7] IDJ Silva, MJ Rider, R Romero, CA Murari,

“Transmission network expansion planning

considering uncertainness in demand,” IEEE

Power Eng Soc Gen Meet, vol. 2, pp. 1424-

1429, 2005.

[8] P Maghouli, SH Hosseini, MO Buygi, M

Shahidehpour, “A scenario-based multiobjective

model for multi-stage transmission

expansion planning,” IEEE Trans Power Syst,

vol. 26, pp. 470-478, 2011.

[9] AML Silva, LS Rezende, LAF Manso, LC

Resende, “Reliability worth applied to

transmission expansion planning based on ant

colony system,” Int J Electr Power and Energy

Syst, vol. 32, pp. 1077-10841, 2010 .

[10] NH Sohtaoglu, “The effect of economic

parameters on power transmission planning,”

9th Mediterr Electrotech Conf, vol. 2, pp. 941-

945, 1998.

[11] B Graeber, “Generation and transmission

expansion planning in southern Africa,” 1999

IEEE Africon, vol. 14, pp. 983-988, 1999.

[12] MS Kandil, SM El-Debeiky, NE Hasanien,

“Rule-based system for determining unit

locations of a developed generation expansion

plan for transmission planning,” IEE Proc

Gener Transm Distrib, vol. 147, pp. 62-68,

2000.

[13] RS Chanda, PK Bhattacharjee, “A reliability

approach to transmission expansion planning

using minimal cut theory,” Electr Power Syst

Res, vol. 33, pp. 111-117, 1995.

[14] RS Chanda, PK Bhattacharjee, “A reliability

approach to transmission expansion planning

using fuzzy fault-tree model,” Electr Power

Syst Res, vol. 45, pp. 101-108, 1998.

[15] S Granville, MVF Pereira, GB Dantzig, B Avi-

Itzhak, M Avriel, A Monticelli, LMVG Pinto,

“Mathematical decomposition techniques for

power system expansion planning-analysis of

the linearized power flow model using the

Benders decomposition technique,” EPRI,

Technical Report, RP, pp. 2473-6, 1988.

[16] R Romero, A Monticelli, “A hierarchical

decomposition approach for transmission

network expansion planning,” IEEE Trans

Power Syst, vol. 9, pp. 373-380, 1994.

[17] S Binato, GC de Oliveira, Araujo JL, “A

greedy randomized adaptive search procedure

for transmission expansion planning,” IEEE

Trans Power Syst, vol. 16, pp. 247-253, 2001.

[18] STY Lee, KL Hocks, H Hnyilicza,

“Transmission expansion by branch and bound

integer programming with optimal cost

capacity curves,” IEEE Trans Power Appar

Syst, vol. PAS-93, pp. 1390-1400, 1974.

[19] MVF Periera, LMVG Pinto, “Application of

sensitivity analysis of load supplying capability

to interactive transmission expansion

planning,” IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst, vol.

PAS-104, pp. 381 -389, 1985.

[20] R Romero, RA Gallego, A Monticelli,

“Transmission system expansion planning by

simulated annealing,” IEEE Trans Power Syst,

vol. 11, pp. 364-369, 1996.

[21] RA Gallego, AB Alves, A Monticelli, R

Romero, “Parallel simulated annealing applied

to long term transmission network expansion

planning,” IEEE Trans Power Syst, vol. 12, pp.

181-188, 1997.

[22] T Al-Saba, I El-Amin, “The application of

artificial intelligent tools to the transmission

expansion problem,” Electr Power Syst Res,

vol. 62, pp. 117-126, 2002.

[23] J Contreras, FF Wu, “A kernel-oriented

algorithm for transmission expansion

planning,” IEEE Trans Power Syst, vol. 15, pp.

1434-1440, 2000.

[24] ASD Braga, JT Saraiva, “A multiyear dynamic

approach for transmission expansion planning

and long-term marginal costs computation,”

IEEE Trans Power Syst, vol. 20, pp. 1631-

1639, 2005.

[25] EL Silva, HA Gil, JM Areiza, “Transmission

network expansion planning under an

improved genetic algorithm,” IEEE Trans

Power Syst, vol. 15, pp. 1168-1174, 2000.

[26] EL Silva, JMA Oritz, GC Oleveria, S Binato,

“Transmission network expansion planning

under a Tabu search approach,” IEEE Trans

Power Syst, vol. 16, pp. 62-68, 2001.

[27] S Jalilzadeh, A Kazemi, H Shayeghi, M

Mahdavi, “Technical and economic evaluation

of voltage level in transmission network

expansion planning using GA,” Energy

Convers Manag, vol. 49, pp. 1119-1125, 2008.

[28] H Shayeghi, S Jalilzadeh, M Mahdavi, H

Haddadian, “Studying influence of two

effective parameters on network losses in

transmission expansion planning using

DCGA,” Energy Convers Manag, vol. 49, pp.

3017-3024, 2008.

[29] H Shayeghi, M Mahdavi, “Studying the effect

of losses coefficient on transmission expansion

planning using decimal codification based

GA,” Int J Tech Phys Probl Eng, vol. 1, pp. 58-

64, 2009.

[30] H Shayeghi, M Mahdavi, “Genetic algorithm

based studying of bundle lines effect on

network losses in transmission network

expansion planning,” J Electr Eng, vol. 60, pp.

237-245, 2009.

[31] JH Zhao, J Foster, ZY Dong, KP Wong,

Syst, vol. PAS-93, pp. 1390-1400, 1974.

[19] MVF Periera, LMVG Pinto, “Application of

sensitivity analysis of load supplying capability

to interactive transmission expansion

planning,” IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst, vol.

PAS-104, pp. 381 -389, 1985.

[20] R Romero, RA Gallego, A Monticelli,

“Transmission system expansion planning by

simulated annealing,” IEEE Trans Power Syst,

vol. 11, pp. 364-369, 1996.

[21] RA Gallego, AB Alves, A Monticelli, R

Romero, “Parallel simulated annealing applied

to long term transmission network expansion

planning,” IEEE Trans Power Syst, vol. 12, pp.

181-188, 1997.

[22] T Al-Saba, I El-Amin, “The application of

artificial intelligent tools to the transmission

expansion problem,” Electr Power Syst Res,

vol. 62, pp. 117-126, 2002.

[23] J Contreras, FF Wu, “A kernel-oriented

algorithm for transmission expansion

planning,” IEEE Trans Power Syst, vol. 15, pp.

1434-1440, 2000.

[24] ASD Braga, JT Saraiva, “A multiyear dynamic

approach for transmission expansion planning

and long-term marginal costs computation,”

IEEE Trans Power Syst, vol. 20, pp. 1631-

1639, 2005.

[25] EL Silva, HA Gil, JM Areiza, “Transmission

network expansion planning under an

improved genetic algorithm,” IEEE Trans

Power Syst, vol. 15, pp. 1168-1174, 2000.

[26] EL Silva, JMA Oritz, GC Oleveria, S Binato,

“Transmission network expansion planning

under a Tabu search approach,” IEEE Trans

Power Syst, vol. 16, pp. 62-68, 2001.

[27] S Jalilzadeh, A Kazemi, H Shayeghi, M

Mahdavi, “Technical and economic evaluation

of voltage level in transmission network

expansion planning using GA,” Energy

Convers Manag, vol. 49, pp. 1119-1125, 2008.

[28] H Shayeghi, S Jalilzadeh, M Mahdavi, H

Haddadian, “Studying influence of two

effective parameters on network losses in

transmission expansion planning using

DCGA,” Energy Convers Manag, vol. 49, pp.

3017-3024, 2008.

[29] H Shayeghi, M Mahdavi, “Studying the effect

of losses coefficient on transmission expansion

planning using decimal codification based

GA,” Int J Tech Phys Probl Eng, vol. 1, pp. 58-

64, 2009.

[30] H Shayeghi, M Mahdavi, “Genetic algorithm

based studying of bundle lines effect on

network losses in transmission network

expansion planning,” J Electr Eng, vol. 60, pp.

237-245, 2009.

[31] JH Zhao, J Foster, ZY Dong, KP Wong,

“Flexible transmission network planning

considering distributed generation impacts,”

IEEE Trans Power Syst, vol. 26, pp. 1434-

1443, 2011.

[32] M Mahdavi, H Shayeghi, A Kazemi, “DCGA

based evaluating role of bundle lines in TNEP

considering expansion of substations from

voltage level point of view,” Energy Convers

Manag, vol. 50, pp. 2067-2073, 2009.

[33] H Shayeghi, M Mahdavi, A Kazemi, HA

Shayanfar, “Studying effect of bundle lines on

TNEP considering network losses using

decimal codification genetic algorithm,”

Energy Convers Manag, vol. 51, pp. 2685-

2691, 2010.

[34] H Shayeghi, M Mahdavi, HA Shayanfar, A

Bagheri, “Application of binary particle swarm

optimization for transmission expansion

planning considering lines loading,” In

proceedings of the 2009 Int Conf Artif Intell,

USA, pp. 653-659, 2009.

[35] H Shayeghi, A Jalili, HA Shayanfar, “Multistage

fuzzy load frequency control using PSO,”

Energy Convers Manag, vol. 49, pp. 2570-

2580, 2008.

[36] M Clerc, J Kennedy, “The particle swarmexplosion,

stability, and convergence in a

multidimensional complex space,” IEEE Trans

Evol Comput, vol. 6, pp. 58-73, 2002.

[37] N Jin, YR Samii, “Advances in particle swarm

optimization for antenna designs: real-number,

binary, single-objective and multiobjective

implementations,” IEEE Trans Antennas

Propag, vol. 55, pp. 556-567, 2007.

[38] AAA Esmin, GL Torres, ACZ de Souza, “A

hybrid particle swarm optimization applied to

loss power minimization,” IEEE Trans Power

Syst, vol. 20, pp. 859-866, 2005.

considering distributed generation impacts,”

IEEE Trans Power Syst, vol. 26, pp. 1434-

1443, 2011.

[32] M Mahdavi, H Shayeghi, A Kazemi, “DCGA

based evaluating role of bundle lines in TNEP

considering expansion of substations from

voltage level point of view,” Energy Convers

Manag, vol. 50, pp. 2067-2073, 2009.

[33] H Shayeghi, M Mahdavi, A Kazemi, HA

Shayanfar, “Studying effect of bundle lines on

TNEP considering network losses using

decimal codification genetic algorithm,”

Energy Convers Manag, vol. 51, pp. 2685-

2691, 2010.

[34] H Shayeghi, M Mahdavi, HA Shayanfar, A

Bagheri, “Application of binary particle swarm

optimization for transmission expansion

planning considering lines loading,” In

proceedings of the 2009 Int Conf Artif Intell,

USA, pp. 653-659, 2009.

[35] H Shayeghi, A Jalili, HA Shayanfar, “Multistage

fuzzy load frequency control using PSO,”

Energy Convers Manag, vol. 49, pp. 2570-

2580, 2008.

[36] M Clerc, J Kennedy, “The particle swarmexplosion,

stability, and convergence in a

multidimensional complex space,” IEEE Trans

Evol Comput, vol. 6, pp. 58-73, 2002.

[37] N Jin, YR Samii, “Advances in particle swarm

optimization for antenna designs: real-number,

binary, single-objective and multiobjective

implementations,” IEEE Trans Antennas

Propag, vol. 55, pp. 556-567, 2007.

[38] AAA Esmin, GL Torres, ACZ de Souza, “A

hybrid particle swarm optimization applied to

loss power minimization,” IEEE Trans Power

Syst, vol. 20, pp. 859-866, 2005.

Volume 1, Issue 2

Summer 2012

Pages 29-42